In The Toolbox – Static Code Analysis


There is a certain level of satisfaction to be gained from tracking down a really gnarly bug. If it’s a really tough one you might even be inclined to punch the air in a physical gesture that reflects the effort you put into finding it. Of course we’d all wish this was never needed; that we’d always write bug free code. Or at least track it down very quickly during (unit) testing when the code is freshest in our minds.


The antithesis of this is tracking down a bug only to find that a tool could have easily pointed it out for you. I find this kind of bug soul destroying because I know I’ve just wasted part of my life doing something the very machine I’m programming could have saved me from. Static Code Analysis is one of those tasks that a machine is perfectly suited to as it systematically reviews your code and points out those places where the dragons may be lying in wait.

To Err Is Human

One of the most common mistakes I used to make in my earlier days was the “assignment instead of comparison” inside an “if” statement, e.g. writing if (x = 2) instead of if (x == 2). Another common mistake I used to fall foul of was uninitialised variables. There was always a desire to avoid unnecessarily initialising a variable with a default value despite the danger of ending up with a code path that might use its uninitialised value. The mantra of “not paying for what you don’t use” can lead you to prematurely optimise your code’s execution speed at the cost of significantly increased development time, and subsequent hair loss.


There have been attempts to try and write code in a different style as a way of avoiding some of the more common mistakes. One of the most notable is probably the swapping of the arguments in an “if” statement so that you would end up trying to assign to a literal value instead of the variable, e.g. instead of writing if (x == 2) you use if (2 == x). But that just makes the code harder to read, and anyway it doesn’t work when non-const variables are involved. The Single Assignment pattern [1], which gets an added boost via const in C++ and final in Java, is a more human friendly approach to the problem, e.g.


    const std::string input = getInput();

    const size_t index = input.find_first_of(‘<’);


    if (index == std::string::npos)

The Free Lunch?

Contorting your code to avoid common coding problems should not be your first line of inquiry. This is even more true today as the very first bit of advice in Steve Maguire’s 1993 book Writing Solid Code, is this:-


“Enable all the optional warnings in your compiler”.


Those more familiar with the similarly aged Code Complete by the other Steve (McConnell) have to wait a little longer for the same advice, almost until the end of the book (Chapter 26 – Debugging) but it’s still there. This should be done in companion with enabling “warnings as errors” to make sure you don’t just try and ignore what the compiler might be trying to tell you. Yes, in many cases the warnings are possibly benign, but if you fail to deal with the issue there-and-then you risk missing the really important stuff in a sea of trivia when it finally rears its ugly head.


The best part about that advice is that it’s pretty much free. You’ve already paid for the compiler (either in pennies or time) and so you might as well put it to good use. In these modern times where there is an abundance of Open Source Software, even if you aren’t using it for your production builds, it can still be used as an additional pair of eyes that will cast a second opinion on your codebase.


For many years I was perfectly happy using /W4 /WX with Visual C++ and felt reasonably smug that I was getting some decent static analysis (this was long before they added the extra code analysis). Then, after a fair bit of refactoring I managed to get GCC to at least compile parts of my codebase (not all and it still wouldn’t link) and yet I was amazed at how much extra free static analysis I had been missing out on. GCC highlighted another 14 potential issues that Visual C++ was silent on. And this was before I had turned on the standards compliance and portability settings (which I had little need for production-wise). Clearly a propriety company like Microsoft has a vested interest in making money from their extra smarts and with an Enterprise-style budget you may get more out-of-the-box, but it just goes to remind us that the OSS offerings can often play and even outsmart their rivals in the big leagues.


As an aside the main place where the most refactoring was needed was in my COM components. I had a bit of extra work to manually convince the MIDL compiler to throw out something GCC could directly consume, as Visual C++ invokes it automatically, and I had to provide some workarounds for VC++ specific extensions like __uuidof. But, once that was done it meant a whole lot more code could be put under the microscope. In particular it highlighted a number of places in my error handling where I had switched from a custom string implementation (that had the same memory footprint as a char*) to std::string and I was passing it by value to a printf() style variable args function.

Custom Tooling

With potentially so much on offer before getting your wallet out you might be thinking there is little point in spending any money on custom tooling. Aside from the grief I’d get from at least one prominent ACCU member by suggesting that strategy, it’s simply not true – there is definitely a lot of value in tools like the venerable Lint. For starters not all languages even need a compiler, e.g. JavaScript, and so that’s not even an option. Secondly, even if you do have a compilation step, custom tools like Lint can provide more extensive coverage simply because they’re more focused in finding bugs in your code instead of generating binaries. Going back to JavaScript for a moment, Douglas Crockford, author of JavaScript: The Good Parts, illustrates nicely in his book how a tool like JSLint is essential due to some pretty ugly language features.


If you think that the cost of a license for a commercial tool like PC-lint (as opposed to one of the more extortionately priced tools) is too much, consider how much programmer time you’ve lost through bugs like uninitialised variables or missing/badly written copy constructors. Whilst working for a large bank, I was turned down access to PC-lint because they only had a handful of licenses. During that project I know of at least two occasions where programmers had lost an entire day tracking down a bug caused by just such an issue and both developers were paid more per day than a single license of the software that could have found it for them.


Of course there is a start-up cost in introducing such a tool and that cost is much larger on a legacy system, but as Anna-Jayne Metcalfe showed in her 2008 ACCU London [2] talk you don’t have to jump in and try and fix everything right at the start. You need to start small, enabling only the analysis of the most serious problems and then progress from there. Whilst integration into your build pipeline is an excellent eventual goal, just running it regularly manually should pay early dividends.

Design Smells

Once you get passed the hardcore problems you might begin to wonder how much value there is in some of the softer complaints or suggestions the tool makes. ReSharper, which is a tool for the .Net world (although they’re moving into the realms of C++) will point out where you can pass an iterator instead of a container, because it can see that you’ve only iterated it. While both forms are technically correct, given the lack of const in C# along with the standard containers being mutable, you’re probably taking unnecessary liberties. Similarly I’ve seen cases where ReSharper spots that methods and even whole classes can be declared static which saves on unnecessary heap churn. The lack of free functions in C# coupled with an attitude that “static is bad” [3] means that some designs overuse Object-Orientation when a simple function will suffice.

Learning Aid

This brings me along nicely to my final reason for using such a tool – it’s also a learning aid. As we get more experienced we make far less of the fundamental errors as we begin to remember the things that constantly trip us up, but in the early days we’re like a toddler as we keep falling over. Switch to a new language though, and even if we’re an experienced developer we can still regress back to that toddler stage if there are enough differences. Even moving to a new project that uses a newer version of the same language can surprise you as you might have forgotten all the cool things they added but you’ve yet to be able to get practical experience with.


My own move from long term C++ developer to n00b C# developer was helped in part by a similarity in the languages around the basic constructs but also through the use of a static code analysis tool to show me the finer details. More recently the move from .Net 3.5 to .Net 4.0 means that named and optional arguments are now at my disposal which I keep forgetting (although it’s the former rather that latter which I’m more interested in).


By far the biggest win though has been in learning LINQ, which can be accessed either directly via the C# extension methods, or through the syntactic sugar the language provides. In the beginning I could write the really obvious SQL-like format pretty quickly but some of the more subtle forms, such as when transforming to a Dictionary, I struggled with. When I saw the tool suggest it could change the structure of my code I first guessed what it might do, then reveal what the answer was. If I didn’t get it right I’d switch back and forth with the editor’s Undo/Redo command to try and understand what it was proposing.


Even now when I see an error message, say, from the compiler I generally try not to read what the actual error messages says, instead favouring to just jump right to the code to see if I can quickly spot what the compiler has picked up.

Keep Control

It’s tempting when you see a barrage of issues reported by a tool like this to just go through blindly and accept the changes it suggests on the basis that “it’s always right”. In the case of some of the LINQ transformations I’ve seen it do I’d definitely question that wisdom. A tool like this should be there to watch your back and do your bidding, don’t let it get out of control and start writing your code for you. The code it generates may be syntactically correct but it may not express it in the most human readable way and share your design intent.



[2] Taming the Lint Monster – 20th November 2008.



Chris Oldwood

09 October 2013



Chris is a freelance developer who started out as a bedroom coder in the 80’s writing assembler on 8-bit micros; these days it’s C++ and C#. He also commentates on the Godmanchester duck race and can be contacted via or @chrisoldwood.